招待講演

Probing Visual Perception Outside of Conscious Awareness

講演者:Randolph Blake

所属 Department of Psychology, Vanderbilt University

Academic Profile and Publications

http://www.psy.vanderbilt.edu/faculty/blake/blake.html

アブストラクト

Conscious visual awareness seems to occupy center stage in our perceptual world, guiding our actions and channeling our thoughts. But is that impression a misleading illusion? To rephrase the question in a tractable form, what aspects of visual processing transpire outside of awareness? Psychologists have at their disposal an arsenal of techniques for dissociating optical input and visual awareness, and my talk will touch on the strengths and weaknesses of some of those techniques. But I’ll focus primarily on the beguiling phenomenon called binocular rivalry, wherein perceptual dominance fluctuates between conflicting visual images presented separately to the two eyes. I will highlight some surprising discoveries that have been made using rivalry to dissociate physical stimulation from perceptual awareness, including the impact of affective and semantic content on suppression of a stimulus from awareness. I will close by describing results illuminating possible neural concomitants of fluctuations in visual perception during rivalry and will offer some thoughts on the implications of those results for the larger question of neural correlates of consciousness.

Keeping a Spotless Mind: The Neuroscience of Motivated Forgetting

講演者:Michael Anderson

所属 MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, University of Cambridge

Academic Profile and Publications

http://www.neuroscience.cam.ac.uk/directory/profile.php?mcanders

https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Michael_Anderson18

アブストラクト

People usually consider forgetting to be a problem—a human frailty to be avoided and overcome. Yet, a memory system that works too well burdens us with irrelevant and distracting information, and makes it difficult to adapt in the aftermath of unpleasant life experiences.  Neuroscience has increasingly recognized that a healthy memory benefits from the ability to forget, and has established the existence of active mechanisms that foster forgetting of unwanted memories.   In this talk, Professor Anderson will review the emerging behavioural and neuroimaging evidence that stopping the retrieval process to suppress awareness of an unwelcome memory is achieved by a general inhibitory control mechanism mediated by the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.  Interestingly, this “memory stopping” mechanism that is essential in controlling the conscious mind builds on basic neural mechanisms known to be important in controlling overt physical actions. This inhibition mechanism controls awareness by reducing activity in the hippocampus, inducing amnesia for suppressed memories. Importantly, recent work has revealed that psychological disorders such as PTSD, depression, and anxiety disorder may arise in part from deficits in the ability to engage these brain networks to control intrusive memories and thoughts. Join Professor Anderson as he discusses research revealing how the brain accomplishes motivated forgetting, and how these brain mechanisms shape what we remember of life experience, protecting our mental health.

What are the Ingredients of Effective Psychotherapy? A Practitioner-friendly Review of the Evidence

講演者:Mick Cooper

所属 Department of Psychology, University of Roehampton

Academic Profile and Publications

http://www.roehampton.ac.uk/staff/Mick-Cooper/

アブストラクト

Are some therapies more effective than others? Is the person of the therapist important? Is it true that, "It is the relationship that heals"? This lecture will present a practitioner-friendly review of research findings in the psychotherapy and counseling research field, addressing these questions and many more. It will look at the overall outcomes of psychotherapy; and the role of therapist, client, relational and orientation factors in producing positive outcomes. The lecture will also go on to look at current debates and developments in the field of psychotherapy and counselling research, particularly the move towards the use of evidence at an individual, 'idiographic' level. This lecture will draw from Professor Cooper's book, 'Essential research findings in counselling and psychotherapy: The facts are friendly' , translated into Japanese as [エビデンスにもとづくカウンセリング効果の研究―クライアントにとって何が最も役に立つのか] The lecture will be particularly suitable to clinicians who are new to the field of psychotherapy and counselling research or who are developing an interest in this area.

The Social Unconscious

講演者:Mahzarin R. Banaji

所属 Department of Psychology, Harvard University

Academic Profile and Publications

http://www.people.fas.harvard.edu/~banaji/

アブストラクト

From the moment of birth, every human is a member of many groups. By the opportunities and liberties offered or snatched away, group memberships shape lives ubiquitously and enduringly.  Group memberships create affiliations of “us” and “them” and sensitivity to status in social hierarchies.  Human minds reflect these in myriad attitudes and beliefs, which contain deep knowledge about the hidden presence of group love, its surprising absence, and its opposite.  Unveiling them, through a diversity of methods now available to experimental psychology, allows understanding the natural and cultivated ways in which group love is elusively tuned up and down.

How the Brain Learns from the Past to Make Good Decisions for the Future: The Neural Basis of Human Reinforcement-learning.

講演者:John P. O’Doherty

所属 Division of Humanities and Social Sciences, California Institute of Technology

Academic Profile and Publications

http://www.hss.caltech.edu/content/john-p-odoherty

アブストラクト

In order to make good decisions, we need to learn from the actions we took in our past. Here I will describe how an approach called computational fMRI in which formal computational models are combined with fMRI data can be used to investigate the means by which the brain carries out value-based learning and action selection. In particular I will illustrate how a family of computational models called reinforcement-learning provide a good account of the patterns of neural activity across a network of brain regions during learning and decision-making. Our findings point to the existence of multiple mechanisms within the brain that may compete and co-operate in order to control behavior. Finally, I will speculate on the relevance of this approach as a means of providing insight not only into how healthy brains make decisions, but also as to how various psychiatric disorders may potentially arise from impairments in these basic computations.